No. You cannot become physically dependent on or addicted to heroin after one use.
Being physically dependent on a drug means that one needs the drug to function properly. Physical dependence on the drug takes time and repeated use to develop. Addiction, on the other hand, is compulsive behavior despite negative consequences. While definitions of addiction vary, it is clear that neither dependence nor addiction can occur after using heroin once.
While the rates of heroin use and addiction have risen rapidly in recent years, federal government survey data consistently shows that approximately 80% of people who use heroin do not become dependent on it.