Roughly 750,000 people are arrested for marijuana each year, the vast majority of them for simple possession, with racial minorities over-represented.

American Civil Liberties Union. "The War on Marijuana in Black and White." 2013.

Boire, Richard Glen. Life Sentences: Collateral Sanctions Associated with Marijuana Offenses. Center for Cognitive Liberty & Ethics, 2007.

Bonnie, Richard J., and Charles H. Whitebread. Marijuana Conviction: A History of Marijuana Prohibition in the United States. 1999.

Boruchowitz, Robert C, Malia N Brink, and Maureen Dimino. Minor Crimes, Massive Waste: The Terrible Toll of America's Broken Misdemeanor Courts. National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, 2009.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Crime in the United States, 2012." Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 2013.

Howell, Babe. "Broken Lives from Broken Windows: The Hidden Costs of Aggressive Order-Maintenance Policing." New York University Review of Law & Social Change 33 (2009): 271.

Musto, David F. The American Disease: Origins of Narcotics Control. Oxford University Press, 1999.

———. "Opium, Cocaine and Marijuana in American History." Scientific American 265, no. 1 (1991): 40-47.

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Most marijuana users never use any other illicit drug. 

Anthony, J. C. "Steppingstone and Gateway Ideas: A Discussion of Origins, Research Challenges, and Promising Lines of Research for the Future." Drug Alcohol Depend 123 Suppl 1 (Jun 2012): S99-S104.

Degenhardt, L., L. Dierker, W. T. Chiu, M. E. Medina-Mora, Y. Neumark, N. Sampson, J. Alonso, et al. "Evaluating the Drug Use "Gateway" Theory Using Cross-National Data: Consistency and Associations of the Order of Initiation of Drug Use among Participants in the Who World Mental Health Surveys." [In eng]. Drug Alcohol Depend 108, no. 1-2 (Apr 1 2010): 84-97.

Fergusson, David M, Joseph M Boden, and L John Horwood. "Cannabis Use and Other Illicit Drug Use: Testing the Cannabis Gateway Hypothesis." Addiction 101, no. 4 (2006): 556-69.

Hall, Wayne D, and Michael Lynskey. "Is Cannabis a Gateway Drug? Testing Hypotheses About the Relationship between Cannabis Use and the Use of Other Illicit Drugs." Drug and alcohol review 24, no. 1 (2005): 39-48.

Kirby, Tristan, and Adam E. Barry. "Alcohol as a Gateway Drug: A Study of Us 12th Graders." Journal of School Health 82, no. 8 (2012): 371-79.

Lucas, Philippe, Amanda Reiman, Mitch Earleywine, Stephanie K. McGowan, Megan Oleson, Michael P. Coward, and Brian Thomas. "Cannabis as a Substitute for Alcohol and Other Drugs: A Dispensary-Based Survey of Substitution Effect in Canadian Medical Cannabis Patients." Addiction Research & Theory 21, no. 5 (2013): 435-42.

Morral, Andrew R, Daniel F McCaffrey, and Susan M Paddock. "Reassessing the Marijuana Gateway Effect." Addiction 97, no. 12 (2002): 1493-504.

Nunberg, Helen, Beau Kilmer, Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, and James R. Burgdorf. "An Analysis of Applicants Presenting to a Medical Marijuana Specialty Practice in California." Journal of Drug Policy Analysis 4, no. 1 (2011).

Raby, W. N., K. M. Carpenter, J. Rothenberg, A. C. Brooks, H. Jiang, M. Sullivan, A. Bisaga, S. Comer, and E. V. Nunes. "Intermittent Marijuana Use Is Associated with Improved Retention in Naltrexone Treatment for Opiate-Dependence." Am J Addict 18, no. 4 (Jul-Aug 2009): 301-8.

Rebellon, C. J., and K. Van Gundy. "Can Social Psychological Delinquency Theory Explain the Link between Marijuana and Other Illicit Drug Use? A Longitudinal Analysis of the Gateway Hypothesis." Journal of Drug Issues 36, no. 3 (2006): 515-39.

Reiman, A. "Cannabis as a Substitute for Alcohol and Other Drugs." Harm Reduct J 6 (2009): 35.

Scavone, Jillian L., Robert C. Sterling, Stephen P. Weinstein, and Elisabeth J. Van Bockstaele. "Impact of Cannabis Use During Stabilization on Methadone Maintenance Treatment." The American Journal on Addictions 22, no. 4 (2013): 344-51.

Swartz, R. "Medical Marijuana Users in Substance Abuse Treatment." Harm Reduct J 7 (2010): 3.

Tarter, Ralph E., Levent Kirisci, Ada Mezzich, Ty Ridenour, Diana Fishbein, Michelle Horner, Maureen Reynolds, Galina Kirillova, and Michael Vanyukov. "Does the “Gateway” Sequence Increase Prediction of Cannabis Use Disorder Development Beyond Deviant Socialization? Implications for Prevention Practice and Policy." Drug and Alcohol Dependence 123, Supplement 1, no. 0 (6// 2012): S72-S78.

Van Gundy, Karen, and Cesar J. Rebellon. "A Life-Course Perspective on the "Gateway Hypothesis"." J Health Soc Behav 51, no. 3 (Sep 2010): 244-59.

Wagner, F. A., and J. C. Anthony. "Into the World of Illegal Drug Use: Exposure Opportunity and Other Mechanisms Linking the Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana, and Cocaine." [In eng]. Am J Epidemiol 155, no. 10 (May 15 2002): 918-25.

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Rates of marijuana dependence have not increased over the past 10 years.

Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. "Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS): 2001-2011. National Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment Services." Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2013.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Crime in the United States, 2011." Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2012.

Joy, Janet Elizabeth, Stanley J Watson, and John A Benson. Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base.  Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, National Academies Press, 1999.

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Marijuana regulation allows for a wider variety of THC levels in products.

Burgdorf, James Richard, Beau Kilmer, and Rosalie Liccardo Pacula. "Heterogeneity in the Composition of Marijuana Seized in California." Drug and Alcohol Dependence 117, no. 1 (8/1/ 2011): 59-61.

Carter, G. T., A. M. Flanagan, M. Earleywine, D. I. Abrams, S. K. Aggarwal, and L. Grinspoon. "Cannabis in Palliative Medicine: Improving Care and Reducing Opioid-Related Morbidity." Am J Hosp Palliat Care 28, no. 5 (Aug 2011): 297-303.

Korf, D. J., A. Benschop, and M. Wouters. "Differential Responses to Cannabis Potency: A Typology of Users Based on Self-Reported Consumption Behaviour." Int J Drug Policy 18, no. 3 (May 2007): 168-76.

Levine, Harry G., and Craig Reinarman. "From Prohibition to Regulation: Lessons from Alcohol Policy for Drug Policy." The Milbank Quarterly 69, no. 3 (1991): 461-94.

McLaren, Jennifer, Wendy Swift, Paul Dillon, and Steve Allsop. "Cannabis Potency and Contamination: A Review of the Literature." Addiction 103, no. 7 (2008): 1100-09.

Pol, Peggy, Nienke Liebregts, Ron Graaf, Dirk J Korf, Wim Brink, and Margriet Laar. "Validation of Self‐Reported Cannabis Dose and Potency: An Ecological Study." Addiction 108, no. 10 (Oct 2013): 1801-8.

Sevigny, E. L. "Is Today's Marijuana More Potent Simply Because It's Fresher?" [In eng]. Drug Test Anal 5, no. 1 (Jan 2013): 62-7.

Werb, Dan, Thomas Kerr, Bohdan Nosyk, Steffanie Strathdee, Julio Montaner, and Evan Wood. "The Temporal Relationship between Drug Supply Indicators: An Audit of International Government Surveillance Systems." BMJ Open 3, no. 9 (August 1, 2013 2013).

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The majority of adults who use marijuana do not have adverse mental health issues.

Anderson, D. Mark, Daniel I. Rees, and Joseph J. Sabia. "Medical Marijuana Laws and Suicides by Gender and Age." American Journal of Public Health 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301612 (2014): e1-e8.

Bossong, M. G., H. H. van Hell, G. Jager, R. S. Kahn, N. F. Ramsey, and J. M. Jansma. "The Endocannabinoid System and Emotional Processing: A Pharmacological Fmri Study with 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol." Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 23, no. 12 (Dec 2013): 1687-97.

Ferdinand, Robert F., Frouke Sondeijker, Jan Van Der Ende, Jean-Paul Selten, Anja Huizink, and Frank C. Verhulst. "Cannabis Use Predicts Future Psychotic Symptoms, and Vice Versa." Addiction 100, no. 5 (2005): 612-18.

Frisher, M., I. Crome, O. Martino, and P. Croft. "Assessing the Impact of Cannabis Use on Trends in Diagnosed Schizophrenia in the United Kingdom from 1996 to 2005." Schizophr Res 113, no. 2-3 (Sep 2009): 123-8.

Gage, S. H., S. Zammit, and M. Hickman. "Stronger Evidence Is Needed before Accepting That Cannabis Plays an Important Role in the Aetiology of Schizophrenia in the Population." F1000 Med Rep 5 (2013): 2.

Koola, M. M., R. P. McMahon, H. J. Wehring, F. Liu, K. M. Mackowick, K. R. Warren, S. Feldman, et al. "Alcohol and Cannabis Use and Mortality in People with Schizophrenia and Related Psychotic Disorders." [In eng]. J Psychiatr Res 46, no. 8 (Aug 2012): 987-93.

Levin, R., V. Almeida, F. F. Peres, M. B. Calzavara, N. D. da Silva, M. A. Suiama, S. T. Niigaki, et al. "Antipsychotic Profile of Cannabidiol and Rimonabant in an Animal Model of Emotional Context Processing in Schizophrenia." Curr Pharm Des 18, no. 32 (2012): 4960-5.

McLaren, J. et al (2008). Cannabis and mental health: Put into context. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre of New South Wales. 

Proal, A. C., J. Fleming, J. A. Galvez-Buccollini, and L. E. Delisi. "A Controlled Family Study of Cannabis Users with and without Psychosis." Schizophr Res 10.1016/j.schres.2013.11.014 (Dec 2 2013).

Schier, A. R., N. P. Ribeiro, A. C. Silva, J. E. Hallak, J. A. Crippa, A. E. Nardi, and A. W. Zuardi. "Cannabidiol, a Cannabis Sativa Constituent, as an Anxiolytic Drug." Rev Bras Psiquiatr 34 Suppl 1 (Jun 2012): S104-10.

Yucel, M., E. Bora, D. I. Lubman, N. Solowij, W. J. Brewer, S. M. Cotton, P. Conus, et al. "The Impact of Cannabis Use on Cognitive Functioning in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis of Existing Findings and New Data in a First-Episode Sample." Schizophr Bull 38, no. 2 (Mar 2012): 316-30.

Zuardi, A. W. "Cannabidiol: From an Inactive Cannabinoid to a Drug with Wide Spectrum of Action." Rev Bras Psiquiatr 30, no. 3 (Sep 2008): 271-80.

Zuardi, A. W., J. A. Crippa, J. E. Hallak, S. Bhattacharyya, Z. Atakan, R. Martin-Santos, P. K. McGuire, and F. S. Guimaraes. "A Critical Review of the Antipsychotic Effects of Cannabidiol: 30 Years of a Translational Investigation." Curr Pharm Des 18, no. 32 (2012): 5131-40.

Zuardi, A. W., J. A. Crippa, J. E. Hallak, F. A. Moreira, and F. S. Guimaraes. "Cannabidiol, a Cannabis Sativa Constituent, as an Antipsychotic Drug." Braz J Med Biol Res 39, no. 4 (Apr 2006): 421-9.

Zuardi, A. W., J. A. Crippa, J. E. Hallak, J. P. Pinto, M. H. Chagas, G. G. Rodrigues, S. M. Dursun, and V. Tumas. "Cannabidiol for the Treatment of Psychosis in Parkinson's Disease." J Psychopharmacol 23, no. 8 (Nov 2009): 979-83.

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Marijuana use is not associated with elevated cancer risk as shown in preclinical studies.

Aldington, S., M. Williams, M. Nowitz, M. Weatherall, A. Pritchard, A. McNaughton, G. Robinson, and R. Beasley. "Effects of Cannabis on Pulmonary Structure, Function and Symptoms." Thorax 62, no. 12 (Dec 2007): 1058-63.

Guzman, M. "Cannabinoids: Potential Anticancer Agents." Nat Rev Cancer 3, no. 10 (Oct 2003): 745-55.

Hashibe, Mia, Hal Morgenstern, Yan Cui, Donald P Tashkin, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Wendy Cozen, Thomas M Mack, and Sander Greenland. "Marijuana Use and the Risk of Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers: Results of a Population-Based Case-Control Study." Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 15, no. 10 (2006): 1829-34.

Kaufman, Marc. "Study Finds No Cancer-Marijuana Connection." Washington Post, Friday, May 26 2006.

Liang, Caihua, Michael D. McClean, Carmen Marsit, Brock Christensen, Edward Peters, Heather H. Nelson, and Karl T. Kelsey. "A Population-Based Case-Control Study of Marijuana Use and Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma." Cancer Prevention Research 2, no. 8 (August 1, 2009 2009): 759-68.

Pacher, P. "Towards the Use of Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids for Prostate Cancer." Br J Pharmacol 168, no. 1 (Jan 2013): 76-8.

Pisanti, S., P. Picardi, A. D'Alessandro, C. Laezza, and M. Bifulco. "The Endocannabinoid Signaling System in Cancer." Trends Pharmacol Sci 34, no. 5 (May 2013): 273-82.

Pletcher, M. J., E. Vittinghoff, R. Kalhan, J. Richman, M. Safford, S. Sidney, F. Lin, and S. Kertesz. "Association between Marijuana Exposure and Pulmonary Function over 20 Years." JAMA 307, no. 2 (Jan 11 2012): 173-81.

Salazar, Mar, xEd, Arkaitz Carracedo, Salanueva, xCd, xF, J. igo, et al. "Cannabinoid Action Induces Autophagy-Mediated Cell Death through Stimulation of Er Stress in Human Glioma Cells." The Journal of Clinical Investigation 119, no. 5 (2009): 1359-72.

Tashkin, Donald P. "Effects of Marijuana Smoking on the Lung." Annals of the American Thoracic Society 10, no. 3 (2013/06/01 2013): 239-47.

Velasco, Guillermo, Cristina Sánchez, and Manuel Guzmán. "Towards the Use of Cannabinoids as Antitumour Agents." Nature Reviews Cancer 12, no. 6 (2012): 436-44.

Ware, Mark A. "Cannabis and the Lung: No More Smoking Gun?". Annals of the American Thoracic Society 10, no. 3 (2013/06/01 2013): 248-48.

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Marijuana has been proven helpful for treating the symptoms of a variety of medical conditions. The body’s endocannabinoid system may explain why.

Abrams, D. I., P. Couey, S. B. Shade, M. E. Kelly, and N. L. Benowitz. "Cannabinoid-Opioid Interaction in Chronic Pain." Clin Pharmacol Ther 90, no. 6 (Dec 2011): 844-51.

Abrams, D. I., C. A. Jay, S. B. Shade, H. Vizoso, H. Reda, S. Press, M. E. Kelly, M. C. Rowbotham, and K. L. Petersen. "Cannabis in Painful Hiv-Associated Sensory Neuropathy: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial." Neurology 68, no. 7 (Feb 13 2007): 515-21.

Alhouayek, M., and G. G. Muccioli. "The Endocannabinoid System in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: From Pathophysiology to Therapeutic Opportunity." Trends Mol Med 18, no. 10 (Oct 2012): 615-25.

Bar-Sela, Gil, Marina Vorobeichik, Saher Drawsheh, Anat Omer, Victoria Goldberg, and Ella Muller. "The Medical Necessity for Medicinal Cannabis: Prospective, Observational Study Evaluating the Treatment in Cancer Patients on Supportive or Palliative Care." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 (2013).

Ben Amar, M. "Cannabinoids in Medicine: A Review of Their Therapeutic Potential." J Ethnopharmacol 105, no. 1-2 (Apr 21 2006): 1-25.

Corey-Bloom, Jody, Tanya Wolfson, Anthony Gamst, Shelia Jin, Thomas D. Marcotte, Heather Bentley, and Ben Gouaux. "Smoked Cannabis for Spasticity in Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial." Canadian Medical Association Journal 184, no. 10 (July 10, 2012 2012): 1143-50.

Di Marzo, V. "The Endocannabinoid System: Its General Strategy of Action, Tools for Its Pharmacological Manipulation and Potential Therapeutic Exploitation." Pharmacol Res 60, no. 2 (Aug 2009): 77-84.

Ellis, Ronald J, Will Toperoff, Florin Vaida, Geoffrey Van Den Brande, James Gonzales, Ben Gouaux, Heather Bentley, and J Hampton Atkinson. "Smoked Medicinal Cannabis for Neuropathic Pain in Hiv: A Randomized, Crossover Clinical Trial." Neuropsychopharmacology 34, no. 3 (2008): 672-80.

Fine, P. G., and M. J. Rosenfeld. "The Endocannabinoid System, Cannabinoids, and Pain." Rambam Maimonides Med J 4, no. 4 (2013): e0022.

Fraser, George A. "The Use of a Synthetic Cannabinoid in the Management of Treatment-Resistant Nightmares in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)." CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 15, no. 1 (2009): 84-88.

Grant, Igor, J Hampton Atkinson, Ben Gouaux, and Barth Wilsey. "Medical Marijuana: Clearing Away the Smoke." Open Neurology Journal 6 (2012): 18-25.

Grant, Igor, J Hampton Atkinson, Andrew Mattison, and Thomas J Coates. "Report to the Legislature and Governor of the State of California Presenting Findings Pursuant to SB847 Which Created the Center for Medical Cannabis Research and Provided State Funding." San Diego, CA: University of California, San Diego, (2010).

Grotenhermen, F., and K. Muller-Vahl. "The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabis and Cannabinoids." Dtsch Arztebl Int 109, no. 29-30 (Jul 2012): 495-501.

Hazekamp, Arno, and Franjo Grotenhermen. "Review on Clinical Studies with Cannabis and Cannabinoids 2005-2009." Cannabinoids 5, no. special (2010): 1-21.

Hazekamp, Arno, Mark A Ware, Kirsten R Muller-Vahl, Donald Abrams, and Franjo Grotenhermen. "The Medicinal Use of Cannabis and Cannabinoids—an International Cross-Sectional Survey on Administration Forms." Journal of psychoactive drugs 45, no. 3 (2013): 199-210.

Hermanson, D. J., and L. J. Marnett. "Cannabinoids, Endocannabinoids, and Cancer." Cancer Metastasis Rev 30, no. 3-4 (Dec 2011): 599-612.

Izzo, A. A., F. Borrelli, R. Capasso, V. Di Marzo, and R. Mechoulam. "Non-Psychotropic Plant Cannabinoids: New Therapeutic Opportunities from an Ancient Herb." Trends Pharmacol Sci 30, no. 10 (Oct 2009): 515-27.

Johannigman, Suzanne, and Valerie Eschiti. "Medical Use of Marijuana in Palliative Care." Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing 17, no. 4 (08/01/ 2013): 360-62.

Joy, Janet Elizabeth, Stanley J Watson, and John A Benson. Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base.  Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, National Academies Press, 1999.

Koethe, D., C. Hoyer, and F. M. Leweke. "The Endocannabinoid System as a Target for Modelling Psychosis." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 206, no. 4 (Nov 2009): 551-61.

Kogan, N. M., and R. Mechoulam. "Cannabinoids in Health and Disease." [In eng]. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 9, no. 4 (2007): 413-30.

Lucas, Philippe, Amanda Reiman, Mitch Earleywine, Stephanie K. McGowan, Megan Oleson, Michael P. Coward, and Brian Thomas. "Cannabis as a Substitute for Alcohol and Other Drugs: A Dispensary-Based Survey of Substitution Effect in Canadian Medical Cannabis Patients." Addiction Research & Theory 21, no. 5 (2013): 435-42.

Maione, S., B. Costa, and V. Di Marzo. "Endocannabinoids: A Unique Opportunity to Develop Multitarget Analgesics." Pain 10.1016/j.pain.2013.03.023 (Mar 15 2013).

Marco, E. M., M. S. Garcia-Gutierrez, F. J. Bermudez-Silva, F. A. Moreira, F. Guimaraes, J. Manzanares, and M. P. Viveros. "Endocannabinoid System and Psychiatry: In Search of a Neurobiological Basis for Detrimental and Potential Therapeutic Effects." Front Behav Neurosci 5 (2011): 63.

Naftali, Timna, Lihi Bar Lev, Iris Dotan, Ephraim Philip Lansky, Benjaminov Fabiana Sklerovsky, and Fred Meir Konikoff. "Cannabis Induces a Clinical Response in Patients with Crohn’s Disease: A Prospective Placebo-Controlled Study." Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 11, no. 10 (Oct 2013): 1276-80 e1.

Neumeister, A., M. D. Normandin, R. H. Pietrzak, D. Piomelli, M. Q. Zheng, A. Gujarro-Anton, M. N. Potenza, et al. "Elevated Brain Cannabinoid Cb Receptor Availability in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Positron Emission Tomography Study." Mol Psychiatry 10.1038/mp.2013.61 (May 14 2013).

Passie, Torsten, Hinderk M. Emrich, Matthias Karst, Simon D. Brandt, and John H. Halpern. "Mitigation of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms by Cannabis Resin: A Review of the Clinical and Neurobiological Evidence." Drug Testing and Analysis 4, no. 7-8 (2012): 649-59.

Porter, Brenda E, and Catherine Jacobson. "Report of a Parent Survey of Cannabidiol-Enriched Cannabis Use in Pediatric Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy." Epilepsy & Behavior 29, no. 3 (2013): 574-77.

Riggs, P. K., F. Vaida, S. S. Rossi, L. S. Sorkin, B. Gouaux, I. Grant, and R. J. Ellis. "A Pilot Study of the Effects of Cannabis on Appetite Hormones in Hiv-Infected Adult Men." Brain Res 1431 (Jan 11 2012): 46-52.

Saito, A., M. D. Ballinger, M. V. Pletnikov, D. F. Wong, and A. Kamiya. "Endocannabinoid System: Potential Novel Targets for Treatment of Schizophrenia." Neurobiol Dis 53 (May 2013): 10-7.

Ujike, H., and Y. Morita. "New Perspectives in the Studies on Endocannabinoid and Cannabis: Cannabinoid Receptors and Schizophrenia." J Pharmacol Sci 96, no. 4 (Dec 2004): 376-81.

Wilsey, B., T. Marcotte, R. Deutsch, B. Gouaux, S. Sakai, and H. Donaghe. "Low-Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain." J Pain 14, no. 2 (Feb 2013): 136-48.

Zamberletti, E., T. Rubino, and D. Parolaro. "The Endocannabinoid System and Schizophrenia: Integration of Evidence." Curr Pharm Des 18, no. 32 (2012): 4980-90.

Zuardi, A. W. "Cannabidiol: From an Inactive Cannabinoid to a Drug with Wide Spectrum of Action." Rev Bras Psiquiatr 30, no. 3 (Sep 2008): 271-80.

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There is no evidence that implementing medical marijuana laws impacts the rate of adolescent use.

Anderson, D Mark, Benjamin Hansen, and Daniel Rees. "Medical Marijuana Laws and Teen Marijuana Use." Available at SSRN 2067431, (2012).

Caulkins, Jonathan P, Angela Hawken, Beau Kilmer, and Mark AR Kleiman. Marijuana Legalization: What Everyone Needs to Know.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Harper, S., E. C. Strumpf, and J. S. Kaufman. "Do Medical Marijuana Laws Increase Marijuana Use? Replication Study and Extension." Ann Epidemiol 22, no. 3 (Mar 2012): 207-12.

Hughes, Caitlin Elizabeth, and Alex Stevens. "What Can We Learn from the Portuguese Decriminalization of Illicit Drugs?". British Journal of Criminology 50, no. 6 (2010): 999-1022.

Joy, Janet Elizabeth, Stanley J Watson, and John A Benson. Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base.  Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, National Academies Press, 1999.

Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D., Melvin D. Livingston, and Alexander C. Wagenaar. "Effects of State Medical Marijuana Laws on Adolescent Marijuana Use." American Journal of Public Health 103, no. 8 (Aug 2013): e1-e7.

O’Keefe, Karen, and Mitch Earleywine. "Marijuana Use by Young People: The Impact of State Medical Marijuana Laws." Marijuana Policy Project, 2011.

Room, Robin. Cannabis Policy: Moving Beyond Stalemate. Oxford University Press, USA, 2010.

Single, Eric W. "The Impact of Marijuana Decriminalization: An Update." Journal of public health policy,  (1989): 456-66.

Thies, Clifford F., and Charles A. Register. "Decriminalization of Marijuana and the Demand for Alcohol, Marijuana and Cocaine." The Social Science Journal 30, no. 4 (1993): 385-99.

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Marijuana does not cause long-term cognitive impairment in users who start after 21 years old.

Bava, S., and S. F. Tapert. "Adolescent Brain Development and the Risk for Alcohol and Other Drug Problems." Neuropsychol Rev 20, no. 4 (Dec 2010): 398-413.

Bava, Sunita, Joanna Jacobus, Rachel E. Thayer, and Susan F. Tapert. "Longitudinal Changes in White Matter Integrity among Adolescent Substance Users." Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research 37 Suppl 1 (Jan 2013): E181-9.

DeLisi, Lynn E, Hilary C Bertisch, Kamila U Szulc, Magda Majcher, Kyle Brown, Arthika Bappal, and Babak A Ardekani. "A Preliminary Dti Study Showing No Brain Structural Change Associated with Adolescent Cannabis Use." Harm Reduct J 3, no. 1 (2006): 17.

Iversen, L. "Long-Term Effects of Exposure to Cannabis." Curr Opin Pharmacol 5, no. 1 (Feb 2005): 69-72.

Jacobus, J., T. McQueeny, S. Bava, B. C. Schweinsburg, L. R. Frank, T. T. Yang, and S. F. Tapert. "White Matter Integrity in Adolescents with Histories of Marijuana Use and Binge Drinking." Neurotoxicol Teratol 31, no. 6 (Nov-Dec 2009): 349-55.

Jacobus, J., L. M. Squeglia, M. A. Infante, S. Bava, and S. F. Tapert. "White Matter Integrity Pre- and Post Marijuana and Alcohol Initiation in Adolescence." Brain Sci 3, no. 1 (Mar 22 2013): 396-414.

Rogeberg, O. "Correlations between Cannabis Use and Iq Change in the Dunedin Cohort Are Consistent with Confounding from Socioeconomic Status." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 10.1073/pnas.1215678110 (Jan 14 2013).

Squeglia, L. M., J. Jacobus, and S. F. Tapert. "The Influence of Substance Use on Adolescent Brain Development." [In eng]. Clin EEG Neurosci 40, no. 1 (Jan 2009): 31-8.

Tait, Robert J., Andrew Mackinnon, and Helen Christensen. "Cannabis Use and Cognitive Function: 8-Year Trajectory in a Young Adult Cohort." Addiction 106, no. 12 (2011): 2195-203.

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There is no compelling evidence that marijuana contributes substantially to traffic accidents and fatalities.

Ahlner, J., A. Holmgren, and A. W. Jones. "Prevalence of Alcohol and Other Drugs and the Concentrations in Blood of Drivers Killed in Road Traffic Crashes in Sweden." Scand J Public Health 10.1177/1403494813510792 (Nov 21 2013).

Anderson, D. Mark, Benjamin Hansen, and Daniel I. Rees. "Medical Marijuana Laws, Traffic Fatalities, and Alcohol Consumption." Journal of Law and Economics 56, no. 2 (2013): 333-69.

Armentano, P. "Cannabis and Psychomotor Performance: A Rational Review of the Evidence and Implications for Public Policy." Drug Test Anal 5, no. 1 (Jan 2013): 52-6.

Blows, S., R. Q. Ivers, J. Connor, S. Ameratunga, M. Woodward, and R. Norton. "Marijuana Use and Car Crash Injury." Addiction 100, no. 5 (May 2005): 605-11.

Elvik, R. "Risk of Road Accident Associated with the Use of Drugs: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Evidence from Epidemiological Studies." Accid Anal Prev 60 (Nov 2013): 254-67.

Li, Guohua, Joanne E. Brady, and Qixuan Chen. "Drug Use and Fatal Motor Vehicle Crashes: A Case-Control Study." Accident Analysis & Prevention 60, no. 0 (11// 2013): 205-10.

Ménétrey, Annick, Marc Augsburger, Bernard Favrat, Marie A. Pin, Laura E. Rothuizen, Monique Appenzeller, Thierry Buclin, Patrice Mangin, and Christian Giroud. "Assessment of Driving Capability through the Use of Clinical and Psychomotor Tests in Relation to Blood Cannabinoids Levels Following Oral Administration of 20 Mg Dronabinol or of a Cannabis Decoction Made with 20 or 60 Mg Δ9-Thc." Journal of Analytical Toxicology 29, no. 5 (July 1, 2005 2005): 327-38.

Ramaekers, J. G., G. Berghaus, M. van Laar, and O. H. Drummer. "Dose Related Risk of Motor Vehicle Crashes after Cannabis Use." Drug and Alcohol Dependence 73, no. 2 (2004): 109-19.

Ramaekers, Johannes G, Günter Berghaus, MargrietW van Laar, and Olaf H Drummer. "Dose Related Risk of Motor Vehicle Crashes after Cannabis Use: An Update." In Drugs, Driving and Traffic Safety, 477-99: Springer, 2009.

Ramaekers, Johannes G, Eef L Theunissen, Marjolein de Brouwer, Stefan W Toennes, Manfred R Moeller, and Gerhold Kauert. "Tolerance and Cross-Tolerance to Neurocognitive Effects of Thc and Alcohol in Heavy Cannabis Users." Psychopharmacology 214, no. 2 (Mar 2011): 391-401.

Ronen, A., P. Gershon, H. Drobiner, A. Rabinovich, R. Bar-Hamburger, R. Mechoulam, Y. Cassuto, and D. Shinar. "Effects of Thc on Driving Performance, Physiological State and Subjective Feelings Relative to Alcohol." Accid Anal Prev 40, no. 3 (May 2008): 926-34.

Schwope, D. M., W. M. Bosker, J. G. Ramaekers, D. A. Gorelick, and M. A. Huestis. "Psychomotor Performance, Subjective and Physiological Effects and Whole Blood Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol Concentrations in Heavy, Chronic Cannabis Smokers Following Acute Smoked Cannabis." J Anal Toxicol 36, no. 6 (Jul 2012): 405-12.

Sewell, R. A., J. Poling, and M. Sofuoglu. "The Effect of Cannabis Compared with Alcohol on Driving." [In eng]. Am J Addict 18, no. 3 (May-Jun 2009): 185-93.

Theunissen, Eef L, Gerold F Kauert, Stefan W Toennes, Manfred R Moeller, Anke Sambeth, Mathieu M Blanchard, and Johannes G Ramaekers. "Neurophysiological Functioning of Occasional and Heavy Cannabis Users During Thc Intoxication." Psychopharmacology 220, no. 2 (2012): 341-50.

Toennes, Stefan W, Johannes G Ramaekers, Eef L Theunissen, Manfred R Moeller, and Gerold F Kauert. "Comparison of Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetic Properties in Occasional and Heavy Users Smoking a Marijuana or Placebo Joint." Journal of analytical toxicology 32, no. 7 (2008): 470-77.

———. "Pharmacokinetic Properties of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Oral Fluid of Occasional and Chronic Users." Journal of analytical toxicology 34, no. 4 (2010): 216-21.

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